Thursday, December 8, 2016

'Ewiger Wald: Bedeutung der Natur im Dritten Reich'

Also known in English as 'Enchanted Forest,' a 1936 film by Hanns Springer and Rolf von Sonjevsk-Jamrowski, connecting the German people to their primeval past.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

An Excerpt from 'For the Hitler Youth' (1938) by Helmut Stellrecht; Translation by M.H.

Translation by M.H.; full credit extended to him.

Adolf Hitler with eager members of the Hitlerjugend...
You carry in your blood the holy inheritance of your fathers and forefathers. You do not know those who have vanished in endless ranks into the darkness of the past. But they all live in you and walk in your blood upon the earth that consumed them in battle and toil and in which their bodies have long decayed. Your blood is therefore something holy. In it your parents gave you not only a body, but your nature. To deny your blood is to deny yourself. No one can change it. But each decides to grow the good that one has inherited and suppress the bad. Each is also given will and courage. You do not have only the right, but also the duty to pass your blood on to your children, for you are a member of the chain of generations that reaches from the past into eternity, and this link of the chain that you represent must do its part so that the chain is never broken. But if your blood has traits that will make your children unhappy and burdens to the state, then you have the heroic duty to be the last. The blood is the carrier of life. You carry in it the secret of creation itself. Your blood is holy, for in it God’s will lives.

Tuesday, August 2, 2016

The Origination and Persisting Relevance of 'Living Space'

The term, living space, was introduced into ethnography and geography by Friedrich Ratzel, a 19th century German naturalist. It was absorbed by geopolitical thinkers like Karl Haushofer and popularly diffused in literature by writers such as Hans Grimm. US and British historians claim that the concept is discredited, but it remains as relevant to people of European descent today as it was to Hitler's ultimate aims.

Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904); naturalist,
geographer, and ethnographer.

The term living space, or Der Lebensraum in German, is one of the more well-known, and also distorted and less understood, concepts in German thought. It originates in the halls of the history of biology and geography at their intersection, first used in an academic context by Friedrich Ratzel (see the image, above), a German naturalist who taught and researched at Leipzig University. He uses the term in his publication, "Der Lebensruam."[1] Ratzel's use was scientific and not political.

By 'living space,' Ratzel meant the geographical expanse in which the populations of a given species or subspecies are able to support themselves, their size and mode of existence. [2] It will first be useful to remind the reader of the meaning of 'species,' 'subspecies,' as well as some related biological terms and ideas.

Biologists do not have universal agreement on what 'species' refers to, and defining species as populations whose members can interbreed ignores most of life, which is asexual, and omits the first two thirds of the history of life on Earth. Many hold species are populations of organisms, at a minimum, and disagree on what properties are important. A race is what is called a 'subspecies.' Races are integral to evolution: every species starts as a subspecies of a prior species.

However, Ratzel does not emphasize subspecies, or race, and though he stresses the folk [Das Volk] he spuriously and questionably emphasizes the cultural properties of a people or folk. He views culture as man's primary means of adaptation.[3] Ratzel argues that peoples are shaped by their relationship to their living space. States, for example, are the outcome of particular relations that given peoples have with their own environments and their unique assemblages of flora and fauna.

There are two important dimensions regarding living space, for Ratzel, that are crucial to understanding it: 1) migration and 2) colonization. The relationship of a population to its living space is directly connected to both. An expanding living space is the consequence of a population migrating to new territory, or increasing the proximal space of prior territory and therefore pushing elements of the population into it, and also a continual, successful colonization of such territory.

Vitally, successful migration and colonization means that living space, for human beings at least, is space within which farming, cultivating, and growing crops can take place. Genuine living space is irrigable and farmable soil and land.

The notion of living space was developed in the context of important advances in biological thought, including Darwin's hypothesis of natural selection. Crucially, it was also extended and embedded within German politics. Karl Haushofer (1869-1946), a German geopolitician, diffused his ideas, deeply influenced by Ratzel, to leading figures of the National-Socialist movement in Germany. Rudolf Hess was a student of Haushofer; both expanded the political relevance of Ratzel's ideas.

Popular writers, such as Hans Grimm, diffused the political relevance of living space into a popular context. His book, Volk ohne Raum, or People Without Space, was published in 1927. It is a novel that highlights the geographic limitations constraining the German people and dramatizing their very real need for greater living space. Published at a time when the Empires of Europe, including France and Britain, still had great colonial holdings, it makes a case for such, for Germany.[4]

Throughout the later Middle Ages, German settlements were in constant flux in their relation with peoples in Eastern territories. The tendency to push Eastward arose as a consequence both of planned marches as well as a natural, demographic tendency. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the convergence of this historical tendency with the concept of living space led to formal advocacy of a modern Drang nach Osten: a "drive to the East" or "yearning for the East."

The incorporation of the term 'living space' into National-Socialism was accompanied by its correlation with Germany's geopolitical predicament on the European Continent. Germany, at the time Hitler was writing Mein Kampf in the early 1920s, had been stripped of overseas colonies and was sandwiched between hostile Empires in the West and a growing Soviet threat in the East. Western European nations had vast Empires for surplus populations, and the US enjoyed limitless land.

Chapter 14 of Mein Kampf, "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy," accompanies his views on the unenviable geopolitical situation of Germany in Europe with the observation of its parallel need for natural resources. The solution to this dilemma, Hitler writes, is to secure peace with the Empires of Western Europe and a neutral Britain, France, and US, and to extend the living space of the German people eastward. The Soviet Union would have to give way to this new policy.

Hitler's conception of living space emphasizes the necessity of unbroken soil. A people benefits from this continuity: Racially, ethnically, and geographically. It was for this reason that he rejected overseas colonies, though doing so also reminded his desired ally in Britain that Germany had little or no interest in readjustments to the status quo elsewhere in the world. A growing German population, enriched by unbroken soil laced with autobahns, was preferable to faraway lands.

Since World War II, it has been claimed that the defeat of Germany in World War II implies that National-Socialist racial ideas and conception of living space was false. The implication, among other things, is that National-Socialist ideas are scientifically discredited and relying on them entails lending credence to pseudoscience. In other words, if Hitler's ideas about living space were credible and reflected nature, then Germany should not have lost the war with Russia, or World War II.

In his article, "Friedrich Ratzel and the Origins of Lebensraum," Woodruff writes: "The disastrous consequences [of adopting the concept of living space and embedding it in Eastern foreign policy] stemmed from the lack of correspondence between the concept and the social reality that it was supposed to explain." [5]

First of all, the concept of living space, as Hitler employed it, is a descriptive concept, not an explanatory one. It is the combination of Hitler's views of race, his changing assumptions of the German people and inhabitants of Eastern lands, and living space, taken together, that form an explanatory amalgam whose collective claim is relevant to the outcome of World War II. Hitler's views changed as a result of the war, and so did relevant variables, such as an unwelcome war in the West.

If there had not been a war in the West, then this same amalgam of assumptions, ideas and claims would have been correlated with a very different outcome. To assume that it was the scientific validity of beliefs held by Hitler that was principally relevant to consequences of politically applying them is overly simplistic.

The validity of scientific terms, descriptive and explanatory, is unaffected by consequences that are moral or aesthetic in nature. This is as true of Hitler's racial ideas as it is of his use of the concept of living space. The postwar decision to reject race as a scientific concept as well as a basis of identity in politics was completely unrelated to their persisting scientific validity and political utility. The reality of race and relevance of living space are unaffected by the fact of the war.

Human beings clearly understand and apply the principles underlying this conclusion in yet other spheres of their lives. The fact that organized religion has caused and continues to cause grief, strife and death appears irrelevant to the insistence of many humans on their belief and practice of religion. In one way, this is not a good analogy, because religious faith is not comparable to scientific terms, but the point is human willingness to overlook past implications of beliefs, in this case religious.

Biology, anthropology, and science in general have greatly suffered as a consequence of the insistence on deemphasizing race, ethnicity, and other concepts. Similarly, despite the fact that ethnic nationalism and racial identity remains strong among Asian, Arab, Latino and African peoples, European peoples have allowed their revulsion over their view of the past to undermine their own ethnic and racial identity, and the relevance of concepts that remain as important as ever.

The notion of living space retains its political relevance, not only for the German people but also for people of European descent in general. The notion has not evaporated just because there is a temporary consensus in science and politics to reject ideas that were important to Hitler. The fact that their ethnic and racial decline is becoming obvious to European peoples today echoes this reality.

Biological entities persist in having spatial relationships with each other, no matter what we decide to do with the concept of living space. For this reason, we had better retain the idea and, for people of European descent most of all, wrestle with its meaning and subsume the question of our relationship to the space we occupy. The idea of living space entails the relation a population has with its environment, including soil and land and the buildings and objects that decorate it.

The notion of living space, therefore, has both a descriptive and explanatory relevance and also an ethical, moral, and aesthetic relevance. It relates not only to the reality of human populations in concrete biological terms but also to the political and social dimensions of our relationship with the space we occupy and the objects within that space. Consider this with respect to our current decline.

The space of men and women of European descent is daily shrinking, both in the sense of a reduction of unmolested and unsullied domains of public and family life but also the practical sense of space within which daily life is safely lived. When a young German woman cannot traverse a street, when a white family cannot eat at a restaurant, or when a Frenchman is unable to enjoy a stroll in a park, in every case because of deliberate hostility toward them, it is a diminution of space.

Because there has been a very restricted historical interpretation of the concept of living space, limiting our understanding of it solely to German expansion, we have ignored the fact that the concept actually has much greater relevance.

Living space is not only relevant to an expanding or growing nation or people. It is equally relevant to a nation or people in decline, because that decline is directly correlated with the shriveling or circumvention of life activity within otherwise normal living space. Ethnically or racially aware people of European descent need to incorporate a renewed conception of their total environment. Racial, ethnic, and national decline is intimately connected with the living space of peoples.

[1] Friedrich Ratzel, "Der Lebensraum: Eine biogeographische Studie," in K. Büchner, K.V. Fricker, et al., Festgaben für Albert Schäffle zur siebensigen Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages am 24, Februar 1901, Tübingen, 1901, pp. 101-89.
[2] Friedrich Ratzel, Die Erde und Das Leben: Eine vergleichend Erdkunde, 1901, Leipzig and Vienna, Vol 1 (in two volumes), pp. 101-189.
[3] Friedrich Ratzel, "Geschichte, Volkerkunde und historische Perspektive," Historische Zeitschrift, 1904, 93, pp. 1-46.
[4] Woodruff Smith, "The Colonial Novel as Political Propaganda," German Studies Review, 1983, 6 (2), pp. 215-235.
[5] Woodruff D. Smith, "Friedrich Ratzel and the Origins of Lebensraum," German Studies Review, 1980, 3 (1), pp. 51-68.

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

"A Real Case Against the Jews," by Marcus Eli Ravage

This is the full text of Ravage's short tract. I previously posted an excerpt of this but I came across the full body of his short piece and decided to share it here.

"You shall gobble up the peoples of the Earth"
from Der Stürmer, Issue 39, 28 Sept. 1944 [1]

Source: The Century Magazine, Jan. 1928, Vol. 115, Num. 3, pp. 346-350. [2]

"A Real Case Against the Jews
By Marcus Eli Ravage

OF COURSE, you do resent us. It is no good telling me you don’t. So let us not waste any time on denials and alibis. You know you do, and I know it, and we understand each other. To be sure, some of your best friends are Jews, and all that. I have heard that before once or twice, I think. And I know, too, that you do not include me personally - "me" being any particular individual Jew - when you fling out at us in your wholesale fashion, because I am, well, so different, don’t you know, almost as good as one of yourselves. That little exemption does not, somehow, move me to gratitude; but never mind that now. It is the aggressive, climbing, pushing, materialistic sort you dislike - those, in a word, who remind you so much of your own up-and-coming brethren. We understand each other perfectly. I don’t hold it against you.

Bless my soul, I do not blame anybody for disliking anybody. The thing that intrigues me about this anti-Jewish business, as you play at it, is your total lack of grit. You are so indirect and roundabout with it, you make such transparent excuses, you seem to be suffering from self-consciousness so horribly, that if the performance were not grotesque, it would be irritating.

It is not as if you were amateurs: you have been at it for over fifteen centuries. Yet watching you and hearing your childish pretexts, one might get the impression that you did not know yourselves what it is all about. You resent us, but you cannot clearly say why. You think up a new excuse - a "reason" is what you call it - every other day. You have been piling up justifications for yourselves these many hundreds of years and each new invention is more laughable than the last and each new excuse contradicts and annihilates the last. Not so many years ago I used to hear that we were money-grubbers and commercial materialists; now the complaint is being whispered around that no art and no profession is safe against Jewish invasion. We are, if you are to be believed, at once clannish and exclusive and unassimilable because we won’t intermarry with you, and we are also climbers and pushers and a menace to your racial integrity. Our standard of living is so low that we create your slums and sweated industries, and so high that we crowd you out of your best residential sections. We shirk our patriotic duty in wartime because we are pacifists by nature and tradition, and we are the arch-plotters of universal wars and the chief beneficiaries of those wars (see the late "Dearborn Independent," passim, and "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion").

We are at once the founders and leading adherents of capitalism and the chief perpetrators of the rebellion against capitalism. Surely, history has nothing like us for versatility! And, oh! I almost forgot the reason of reasons. We are the stiff-necked people who never accepted Christianity, and we are the criminal people who crucified its founder. But I can tell you, you are self-deceivers. You lack either the self-knowledge or the mettle to face the facts squarely and own up to the truth. You resent the Jew not because, as some of you seem to think, he crucified Jesus but because he gave him birth. Your real quarrel with us is not that we have rejected Christianity but that we have imposed it upon you! Your loose, contradictory charges against us are not a patch on the blackness of our proved historic offense. You accuse us of stirring up revolution in Moscow. Suppose we admit the charge. What of it? Compared with what Paul the Jew of Tarsus accomplished in Rome, the Russian upheaval is a mere street brawl. You make much noise and fury about the undue Jewish influence in your theaters and movie palaces. Very good; granted your complaint is well-founded. But what is that compared to our staggering influence in your churches, your schools, your laws and your governments, and the very thoughts you think every day? A clumsy Russian forges a set of papers and publishes them in a book called "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion," which shows that we plotted to bring on the late World War. You believe that book.

All right. For the sake of argument we will underwrite every word of it. It is genuine and authentic. But what is that beside the unquestionable historical conspiracy which we have carried out, which we have never denied because you never had the courage to charge us with it, and of which the full record is extant for anybody to read? If you really are serious when you talk of Jewish plots, may I not direct your attention to one worth talking about? What use is it wasting words on the alleged control of your public opinion by Jewish financiers, newspaper owners and movie magnates, when you might as well justly accuse us of the proved control of your whole civilization by the Jewish Gospels? You have not begun to appreciate the real depth of our guilt. We are intruders. We are disturbers. We are subverters. We have taken your natural world, your ideals, your destiny, and played havoc with them. We have been at the bottom not merely of the latest great war but of nearly all your wars, not only of the Russian but of every other major revolution in your history. We have brought discord and confusion and frustration into your personal and public life. We are still doing it. No one can tell how long we shall go on doing it.

Look back a little and see what has happened. Nineteen hundred years ago you were an innocent, care-free, pagan race. You worshiped countless gods and goddesses, the spirits of the air, of the running streams and of the woodland. You took unblushing pride in the glory of your naked bodies. You carved images of your gods and of the tantalizing human figure. You delighted in the combats of the field, the arena and the battle-ground. War and slavery were fixed institutions in your systems. Disporting yourselves on the hillsides and in the valleys of the great outdoors, you took to speculating on the wonder and mystery of life and laid the foundations of natural science and philosophy. Yours was a noble, sensual culture, unirked by the prickings of a social conscience or by any sentimental questionings about human equality.

Who knows what great and glorious destiny might have been yours if we had left you alone. But we did not leave you alone. We took you in hand and pulled down the beautiful and generous structure you had reared, and changed the whole course of your history. We conquered you as no empire of yours ever subjugated Africa or Asia. And we did it all without armies, without bullets, without blood or turmoil, without force of any kind. We did it solely by the irresistible might of our spirit, with ideas, with propaganda. We made you the willing and unconscious bearers of our mission to the whole world, to the barbarous races of the earth, to the countless unborn generations. Without fully understanding what we were doing to you, you became the agents at large of our racial tradition, carrying our gospel to the unexplored ends of the earth. Our tribal customs have become the core of your moral code. Our tribal laws have furnished the basic groundwork of all your august constitutions and legal systems. Our legends and our folk tales are the sacred lore which you croon to your infants. Our poets have filled your hymnals and your prayer books. Our national history has become an indispensable part of your pastors and priests and scholars. Our kings, our statesmen, our prophets, our warriors are your heroes. Our ancient little country is your Holy Land. Our national literature is your Holy Bible.

What our people thought and taught has become inextricably woven into your very speech and tradition, until no one among you can be called educated who is not familiar with our racial heritage. Jewish artisans and Jewish fishermen are your teachers and your saints, with countless statues carved in their image and innumerable cathedrals raised to their memories. A Jewish maiden is your ideal of womanhood. A Jewish rebel-prophet is the central figure in your religious worship. We have pulled down your idols, cast aside your racial inheritance, and substituted for them our God and our traditions. No conquest in history can even remotely compare with this clean sweep of our conquest over you. How did we do it? Almost by accident.

Two thousand years ago nearly, in far-off Palestine, our religion had fallen into decay and materialism. Money-changers were in possession of the temple. Degenerate, selfish priests mulcted our people and grew fat. Then a young patriot-idealist arose and went about the land calling for a revival of faith. He had no thought of setting up a new church. Like all the prophets before him, his only aim was to purify and revitalize the old creed. He attacked the priests and drove the money-changers from the temple. This brought him into conflict with the established order and its supporting pillars. The Roman authorities, who were in occupation of the country, fearing his revolutionary agitation as a political effort to oust them, arrested him, tried him and condemned him to death by crucifixion, a common form of execution at that time. The followers of Jesus of Nazareth, mainly slaves and poor workmen, in their bereavement and disappointment, turned away from the world and formed themselves into a brotherhood of pacifist non-resisters, sharing the memory of their crucified leader and living together communistically. They were merely a new sect in Judea, without power or consequence, neither the first nor the last. Only after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans did the new creed come into prominence. Then a patriotic Jew named Paul or Saul conceived the idea of humbling the Roman power by destroying the morale or its soldiery with the doctrines of love and non-resistance preached by the little sect of Jewish Christians. He became the Apostle to the Gentiles, he who hitherto had been one of the most active persecutors of the band. And so well did Paul do his work that within four centuries the great empire which had subjugated Palestine along with half of the world, was a heap of ruins. And the law which went forth from Zion became the official religion of Rome. This was the beginning of our dominance in your world. But it was only a beginning. From this time forth your history is little more than a struggle for mastery between your own old pagan spirit and our Jewish spirit. Half your wars, great and little, are religious wars, fought over the interpretation of one thing or another in our teachings.

You no sooner broke free from your primitive religious simplicity and attempted the practice of the pagan Roman learning than Luther armed with our gospels arose to down you and enthrone our heritage. Take the three principal revolutions in modern times—the French, the American and the Russian. What are they but the triumph of the Jewish idea of social, political and economic justice? And the end is still a long way off. We still dominate you. At this very moment your churches are torn asunder by a civil war between Fundamentalists and Modernists, that is to say between those who cling to our teachings and traditions literally and those who are striving by slow steps to dispossess us. In Dayton, Tennessee, a Bible-bred community forbids the teaching of your science because it conflicts with our ancient Jewish account of the origin of life; and Mr. Bryan, the leader of the anti-Jewish Ku Klux Klan in the Democratic National Convention, makes the supreme fight of his life in our behalf, without noticing the contradiction. Again and again the Puritan heritage of Judea breaks out in waves of stage censorship, Sunday blue laws and national prohibition acts. And while these things are happening you twaddle about Jewish influence in the movies! Is it any wonder you resent us?

We have put a clog upon your progress. We have imposed upon you an alien book and an alien faith which you cannot swallow or digest, which is at cross-purposes with your native spirit, which keeps you everlastingly ill-at-ease, and which you lack the spirit either to reject or to accept in full. In full, of course, you never have accepted our Christian teachings. In your hearts you still are pagans. You still love war and graven images and strife. You still take pride in the glory of the nude human figure. Your social conscience, in spite of all democracy and all your social revolutions, is still a pitifully imperfect thing. We have merely divided your soul, confused your impulses, paralyzed your desires.

In the midst of battle you are obliged to kneel down to him who commanded you to turn the other cheek, who said "Resist not evil" and "Blessed are the peacemakers." In your lust for gain you are suddenly disturbed by a memory from your Sunday-school days about taking no thought for the morrow. In your industrial struggles, when you would smash a strike without compunction, you are suddenly reminded that the poor are blessed and that men are brothers in the Fatherhood of the Lord. And as you are about to yield to temptation, your Jewish training puts a deterrent hand on your shoulder and dashes the brimming cup from your lips. You Christians have never become Christianized. To that extent we have failed with you. But we have forever spoiled the fun of paganism for you. So why should you not resent us? If we were in your place we should probably dislike you more cordially than you do us. But we should make no bones about telling you why. We should not resort to subterfuges and transparent pretexts. With millions of painfully respectable Jewish shopkeepers all about us we should not insult your intelligence and our own honesty by talking about communism as a Jewish philosophy. And with millions of hard-working impecunious Jewish peddlers and laborers we should not make ourselves ridiculous by talking about international capitalism as a Jewish monopoly. No, we should go straight to the point. We should contemplate this confused, ineffectual muddle which we call civilization, this half-Christian half-pagan medley, and - were our places reversed - we should say to you point-blank: "For this mess thanks to you, to your prophets and to your Bible."

[1] The original image also included this poem with it:
Life is not worth living
When one does not resist the parasite,

Never satisfied as it creeps about.

We must and will win.
[2] Follow this link to see the original excerpt that I shared.