Sunday, October 8, 2017

"Race as a Biological Concept," by J.P. Rushton

Rushton prefaced his release of the article below with this statement:
I am issuing this statement to a wide range of media and interested parties in response to the recent Knight-Ridder article out of Washington which argues that race has no validity as a biological concept when applied to man (see *Genetic Basis For Race Just Skin Deep* : October 13, 1996).
I refuted this widely disseminated statement locally (including an appearance on the John Oakley TV talk-show, October 24, 1996 and in a letter appearance on the John Oakley TV talk-show, October 24, 1996 and in a letter to The Toronto Star, October 28, 1996). However, the never-ending disinformation campaign attempting to deconstruct race as a biological concept, needs to be countered by a careful examination of what we do know about human variation. 
I urge academicians, journalists, and editorialists to review the evidence presented here before offering any further comment on this controversial topic. If nothing else, those in academia and the media need to be aware that major efforts are being made throughout Europe to stifle free discussion of race by tightening so-called "hate-laws" and in North America by restricting the way research can be conducted (and funded) and that implementation of these policies threatens the general principles of free speech, open inquiry, and academic freedom and tenure.
Discussion of "race" shows little sign of diminishing, despite efforts to deconstruct the concept. Deconstructing the concept of race not only conflicts with people's tendency to classify and build family histories according to common descent but also ignores the work of biologists studying non-human species. Ever since 1758, when the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus created the classification system still used in biology today, most zoologists have recognized at least the four human subdivisions Linnaeus delineated: Asians, American Indians, Europeans, and Africans. (Technically, some would group the first two Linnaean subdivisions together, thus yielding three major races, often termed, mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids.) Such high-level classifications do not rule out making finer, hierarchical subdivisions within these major groups.

A race is what zoologists term a variety or subdivision of a species. Each race (or variety) is characterized by a more or less distinct combination of inherited morphological, behavioral, physiological traits. In flowers, insects, and non-human mammals, zoologists consistently and routinely study the process of racial differentiation. Formation of a new race takes place when, over several generations, individuals in one group reproduce more frequently among themselves than they do with [others]. This process is most apparent when the individuals live in diverse geographic areas and therefore evolve unique, recognizable adaptations (such as skin color) that are advantageous in their specific environments. But differentiation also occurs under less extreme circumstances. Zoologists and evolutionists refer to such differentiated populations as races. (Within the formal taxonomic nomenclature of biology, races are termed subspecies). Zoologists have identified two or more races (subspecies) in most mammalian species.

Unless one is a religious fundamentalist and believes that man was created in the image and likeness of God, it is foolish to believe that human beings are exempt from biological classification and the laws of evolution that apply to all other life forms. Of course, individuals vary greatly within each racial group and should be treated as such. Nonetheless, much has been learned by studying the statistical differences between the various human races. In my book Race, Evolution, and Behavior (1995, Transaction Publishers), as well as in other recent writings (e.g., the February 1996 issue of Current Anthropology), I review the behavioral, morphological, and physiological differences between the three major human races -- mongoloid, caucasoid, and negroid -- and show that these statistical differences are constant across both historical time, national boundaries, and political and economic systems.

Here I will briefly summarize the findings. Asians and Africans consistently aggregate at opposite ends, with Europeans intermediate, on a continuum that includes over 60 anatomical and social variables. These 60 variables include brain size, intelligence, sexual habits, fertility, personality, temperament, speed of maturation, and longevity. If race were an arbitrary, socially-constructed concept, devoid of all biological meaning, such consistent relationships would not exist.

Those objecting to the concept of race argue that the taxonomic definitions are arbitrary and subjective. Although critics are correct to point out that the variation within each race is extremely large, that there is disagreement as to exactly how many races there are, and that there is a blurring of category edges because of admixture, they are in error when they claim that classifications are arbitrary. For example, race-critic Jared Diamond, in the 1994 issue of Discover magazine, surveyed half a dozen geographically variable traits and formed very different races depending on which traits he picked. Classifying people using anti-malarial genes, lactose tolerance, fingerprint patterns, or skin color resulted in the Swedes of Europe being placed in the same category as the Xhosa and Fulani of Africa, the Ainu of Japan, and the Italians of Europe.

Jared Diamond's classifications, however, are arbitrary and nonsensical because they have little, if any, predictive value beyond the initial classification. More significantly, they confuse the scientific meaning of race, that is, a recognizable ... geographic population. In everyday life, as in evolutionary biology, a "negroid" is someone whose ancestors were born in sub-Saharan Africa, and likewise for a "caucasoid" and a "mongoloid." This definition fits with the temporal bounds offered by the best current theory of human evolution. Thus, since Homo sapiens first appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago, branched off into Europe about 110,000 years ago, and into Asia 70,000 years after that, a "negroid" is someone whose ancestors, between 4,000 and (to accommodate recent migrations) 20 generations ago, were born in sub-Saharan Africa -- and likewise, for a caucasoid and a mongoloid.

Social definitions -- that is, self-identification and other-identification actually accord quite well with the physical evidence. Mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids can be distinguished on the basis of obvious differences in skeletal morphology, hair and facial features, as well by blood groups and DNA fingerprints. Forensic anthropologists regularly classify skeletons of decomposed bodies by race. For example, narrow nasal passages and a short distance between eye sockets identify a caucasoid person, distinct cheekbones characterize a mongoloid person, and nasal openings shaped like an upside down heart typify a negroid person. In certain criminal investigations, the race of a perpetrator can be identified from blood, semen, and hair samples. To deny the predictive validity of race at this level is nonscientific and unrealistic.

The mean pattern of educational and economic achievement within multi-racial countries such as Canada and the United States has increasingly been found to prove valid internationally. For example, it is not often recognized, perhaps because it contradicts the politically correct theories that intelligence is purely a matter of socio-economic conditions, that Asian-Americans and Asians in Asia often outscore white Americans and white Europeans on IQ tests and on tests of educational achievement (even though the tests were largely developed by Europeans and white Americans for use in a Euro-American culture). Blacks in the Caribbean, Britain, Canada and sub-Saharan Africa as well as in the United States have low IQ scores relative to whites. For violent crime, analyses of INTERPOL data from the 1980s and 1990s show the same international distribution that occurs within the United States (that is, Asians least, Europeans in the middle, and Africans most). A similar racial gradient is found both within the U.S. and globally for measures of sexual activity and frequencies of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS (based on World Health Organization data).

One neurohormonal contributor to crime and reproductive behavior is testosterone. Studies show that black college students and military veterans have 3% to 19% more testosterone than their white counterparts. The Japanese have even lower amounts than whites. Sex hormones are circulated throughout the body and are known to activate many brain-behavior systems involving aggression and reproduction. For example, around the world the rate of dizygotic twinning per 1,000 births (caused by a double ovulation), is less than 4 among Asians, 8 among Europeans, and 16 or greater among Africans. The differences in multiple birthing are known to be heritable through the race of the mother regardless of the race of the father, as found in Asian/European matings in Hawaii and European/African matings in Brazil.

Publication of The Bell Curve brought widespread public attention to the research on race that has been accumulating over the last 30 years in technical and specialist journals that demonstrably challenges each and every article of the dogma of biological egalitarianism. Startling, and alarming to many, is the conclusion that follows from these data that if all people were treated the same, most average race differences would not disappear. With egalitarianism under siege, there has been a major effort to get the "race genie" back in the bottle, to squeeze the previously tabooed toothpaste back into the tube, to suppress or deny the latest scientific evidence on race, genetics, and behavior.

Regardless of the extent to which the media promote "politically correct," but scientifically wrong, resolutions from professional societies such as the American Anthropological Association, facts remain facts and require appropriate scientific, not political, explanation. On average, the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese are more similar to each other and are different from Australians, Israelis and the Swedes, who in turn are similar to each other and are different from Nigerians, Kenyans, and Jamaicans. None of this should be construed as meaning that environmental factors play no part individual development. But with each passing year and each new study, the evidence for the genetic contribution to individual and group differences becomes more firmly established than ever.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

A Remark on Hitler from David Lloyd George in 1936

"I have never met a happier people than the Germans and Hitler is one of the greatest men. The old trust him; the young idolise him. It is the worship of a national hero who has saved his country."

- David Lloyd George, from the Daily Express, on 17 September 1936

Tuesday, August 1, 2017

'Permitting the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life': Brief Excerpts and Remarks on Scale and Scope

Binding and Hoche's book was a seminal work. It placed the question of life and death in a scientific, legal, and political contexts. But the concept of 'life unworthy of life' is normative and is broader and deeper than the medical context to which they applied it. The NSDAP and SS expanded it beyond Binding and Hoche's focus. This increased scale and scope was legitimate, and it retains warrant and relevance today.

Binding and Hoche's book, Permitting the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life, was published in 1920 following Binding's death. It examines the theoretical, legal, and medical contexts of the question: "When is the state justifiably engaged in the ending of life?" Their answer: When it involves a life that is not worth living. An unworthy life, in their view, is one that burdens both the individual and his community: It involves a forfeiture or a loss of a will to live that is combined with a grave medical affliction or condition, along with costs it imposes on family and society. In such situations, ending life is laudible. To this end, the state must act to render the desirable possible and feasible.

Binding and Hoche restricted the concept of 'life unworthy of life' to medical contexts, and in particular, to cases of terminal illness. They saw the consequences of World War I in society, particularly the fatally crippled and terminally ill. Their book proposes cautious and systematic medical review of such cases, concluding that the state was weighted with the responsibility of carrying out killing when physicians decided it was necessary. The idea of 'life unworthy of life' was as much informed by the desired weal and quality of life in society as it was of the individual whose life would remain under review: They proposed extensive and exacting legal, scientific and psychiatric study and evaluation.

The book was published before Hitler became Reich Chancellor and NSDAP had formed a government. Both the NSDAP and Schutzstaffel, the SS, also made use of the concept of 'life unworthy of life.' But the NSDAP and SS both understood that the concept was normative, political, and prescientific. It was normative, in that it expressed a value. It was political, in that it referred to how a community ought to view certain of its members. But it was also prescientific. It existed before science formed an integrated institution. Binding and Hoche's use of it was legitimate, but for these reasons, so was the use of the concept by the NSDAP and SS, who expanded it to racial, ethnic, and other contexts.

Despite this, since World War II Anglo-American scholars have ridiculed the notion: 1) They have charged that Binding and Hoche themselves embraced a flawed notion, and injuriously extended it to medicine, and 2) the NSDAP and SS took an already flawed notion and then expanded it to other contexts.[1] But the reality is that every society has some basis for weighing the value of life. In the USSR, 20 million peopled died as a result of Stalinist purges, collectivization, and Gulag confinement. In the US, a chaotic democratic spectacle and blind market coalesce in abortion, tolerance of minority violence, promotion of ill health, poor diet, and abhorrent insurance practices.

The only real esteem that can be given to life arises from a regard for death.

The contemporary West has never been so openly contemptuous of itself, as it has been in the last few decades. It has combined an encouragement of the proliferation of the weak, the unfit, and the mentally and physically infirm with suicidal with a suicidal immigration and demographic policy. It not only permits the persistence of the mentally disturbed, retarded, and inept, but enshrines and elevates them. Normal, healthy, potentially productive youths are asked to share their social space with people of foreign descent as well as the least fit of their own kind. Obesity and gender ambivalence are openly promoted. The natural order is reversed, the most fit punished:
There was a time, now considered barbaric, in which eliminating those who were born unfit for life, or who later became so, was taken for granted.
That line comes at the end of Binding and Hoche's work.

The expansion of the concept by the NSDAP and SS was predicated on the fundamental racial and ethnic interests of the German people and of Europe taken as a whole. Peoples rise and fall, some suffering quiet retreat into diminution, countless dying for causes that remain invisible to them through death. The political expansion of the notion of unworthy life is entitled on the grounds that life and death should not be left to empty and hollow ideological abstractions or the fluctuations of a blind market, but from the vital, core interests of a given folk and its underlying racial foundations. These precede even human societies, and its natural imprints are evident from the distant past.

Source: K. Binding und A. Hoche, Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens (Leipzig, Felix Meiner Verlag: 1920). German here. [1]

Dr. Karl Binding (1841-1920)

Dr. Alfred Hoche (1865-1943)

... Should permissible taking of life be restricted, except in emergency situations, to an individual's act of suicide as it is in current law, or should it be legally extended to the killing of fellow human beings, and under what conditions?

To what extent, then, is killing humans allowed today, again apart from emergency situations, and what is to be understood by this? Recognizing a right to kill would be the opposite of "allowing."


Are there human lives which have so completely lost the attribute of legal status that their continuation has permanently lost all value, both for the bearer of that life and for society?

Merely asking this question is enough to raise an uneasy feeling in anyone who is accustomed to assessing the value of individual life for the bearer and for the social whole. It hurts him to see how we handle the most valuable of lives (filled with and sustained by the strongest will to live and the greatest vital power), and how much labor, power, patience, and capital investment we squander (often totally uselessly) just to preserve lives not worth living - until nature, often pitilessly late, removes the last possibility of their continuation.

Reflect simultaneously on a battlefield strewn with thousands of dead youths, or a mine in which methane gas has trapped hundreds of energetic workers; compare this with our mental hospitals, with their caring for their living inmates. One will be deeply shaken by the strident clash of the sacrifice of the finest flower of humanity in its full measure on the one side, and by the meticulous care shown to existences which are not just absolutely worthless, but even of negative value on the other.

It is impossible to doubt that there are living people to whom death would be a release, and whose death would simultaneously free society and the state from carrying a burden which serves no conceivable purpose, except that of providing an examples of the greatest unselfishness. And because there actually are human lives, in whose preservation no rational being could ever again take any interest, the legal order is now confronted by the fateful question: Is it our duty actively to advocate for this life's asocial continuance (particularly by the fullest application of criminal law) or to permit its destruction under specific conditions? One could also state the question legislatively, like this: Does the energetic preservation of such life deserve preference, as an example of the general unassailability of life? Or does permitting its termination, which frees everyone involved, seem the lesser evil?


But I cannot find the least reason - legally, socially, ethically, or religiously - not to permit those requested to do so to kill such hopeless cases who urgently demand death.


Despite everything, this new question allows only a very slowly unfolding process of change and adjustment. The consciousness of the meaninglessness of merely individual existence when compared with the interests of the whole; the feeling of one's absolute obligation for integrating every available power and discarding all useless tasks; the feeling of being a totally responsible participate in a difficult and painful undertaking: these must all become part of the common understanding to a much greater extent than today before any of the ideas presented here can receive complete recognition.


... Goethe originated the model for how important human questions evolve. He saw them as a spiral. The core of this model is the fact that at regular intervals a spiral line rising in a particular direction perpetually returns to the same position relative to the axis crossing it but each time a step higher.

Eventually, this image will be apparent even in connection with the cultural question we have been discussing. There was a time, now considered barbaric, in which eliminating those who were born unfit for life, or who later became so, was taken for granted. Then came the phrase, continuing into the present, in which, finally, preserving every existence, no matter how worthless, stood as the highest moral value. A new age will arrive - operating with a higher morality and with great sacrifice - which will actually give up the requirements of an exaggerated humanism and overvaluation of mere existence. ...

[1] A good example is "Binding and Hoche's 'Life Unworthy of Life': An Historical Analysis," by Howard Brody and M. Wayne Cooper. They regurgitate the Allied claim that the NSDAP and SS pirated Hoche and Binding's already pseudo-scientific concept.
[2] The English excerpts that I include in this post are cross-referenced with the translation of the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent & Disabled, published in Issues in Law & Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992: 231-265.

Friday, June 2, 2017

When Youth Were Told the Truth: Excerpts from a Middle School Biology Textbook in the German Reich

The excerpts below are taken from a middle school biology textbook for German girls.

Source: Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde für Mittelschulen. Fünfter Teil. Klasse 5 für Mädchen (Halle: Hermann Schroedel Verlag, 1942), pp. 168-173.

The Laws of Nature and Humanity


We have established that all creatures, plants as well as animals, are in a constant battle for survival. Plants crowd into the area they need to grow. Every plant that fails to secure enough room and light must necessarily die. Every animal that does not secure sufficient territory and guard it against other predators, or lacks the necessary strength and speed or caution and cleverness will fall prey to its enemies. The army of plant eaters threatens the plant kingdom. Plant eaters are prey for carnivores. The battle for existence is hard and unforgiving, but is the only way to maintain life. This struggle eliminates everything that is unfit for life, and selects everything that is able to survive.

We have seen that the laws of nature are built on a struggle for survival. The slow-moving herbivores (e.g., cows) have weapons, the speedier ones (e.g., horses or rabbits) use that speed to escape predators. The rabbit instinctively conceals the traces that lead to his den. As a prey, his eyes are to the sides of his head, while a carnivore’s are to the front. The hedgehog has his needles, toads and salamanders have poisonous skins. Predators have keen senses, a powerful spring, sharp teeth, and claws. If we further consider protective coloring, camouflage, and other coloring (above all with young animals), and that each animal has different gifts in seeing and smelling that are appropriate for its needs, we can see everywhere that living creatures are well prepared for the battle for survival. (Compare offensive and defensive characteristics of the various animals!) Animals at our latitude have many characteristics that enable them to survive winter: storing food, hibernation, migration, winter pelts... The same is true for plants. Poisons of various types, irritants, thorns, and needles protect them from herbivores. (Remember the earlier examples!) Seeds that can survive the winter, roots, storage ability (Examples!), enable plants to survive the cold months. By ground leaves, growing high, pyramidal structure, leaf mosaics, climbing, winding, spreading (the dog rose), plants seek the necessary light for their leaves.

All the various habitats are heavily populated; every creature has to fight for its survival and wants to be a winner in this battle. This is summarized in the principle: Each individual wants to maintain its existence in the struggle for survival (self preservation instinct, fighting will, individuality).

Mankind, too, is subject to these natural laws, and has won its dominant position through struggle. This is obvious when we consider the prehistoric hunting age. People then had both to secure their own prey, and protect themselves against the larger carnivores. This old form of the struggle for existence does not, of course, exist in civilized nations any longer. Early man lived in hordes, we live in an ethnic state. The state takes responsibility for territory and much, much more. Nonetheless, each must win his place in his community. As Moltke said, “In the long run, only the hardworking are lucky.” True, the larger carnivores are lacking, but bacteria and other tiny carriers of disease are no small danger. Consider the enormous scientific efforts (the struggle for survival!) men have made, and continue to make, to master these enemies, to defeat diseases! Each of us must keep his body strong through exercise and healthy living habits in order to develop his capacities and use them to serve his people. Those who do not do so are unsuitable for the more refined, yet just as relentless, nature of our struggle for life and will perish. Our Führer tells us:
"He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world of perpetual struggle does not deserve to live!” (Mein Kampf, p. 317)

All living creatures that succeed in the struggle for survival are not satisfied merely with existence, but seek to preserve their species as well. Here, too, is a drive that corresponds to natural law. Without this drive, species would long since have vanished.

The fox builds a den for its helpless young and cares for them. The deer cares for its fawns, and the bat even carries its young with it through the air. Each spring we watch with fascination as the birds cleverly build their nests, hatch their eggs, and untiringly feed their young. Insects place their larvae in certain areas where food is available. Mosquitoes and dragon flies, for example, put them in water, the cabbage moth in cabbages, stag beetles at the base of old oaks. We find the care of the young characteristic of all branches of the animal kingdom (Name all forms of care for offspring with which you are familiar!)

[Here follows a paragraph on insect reproduction]

Maintaining the species also is a struggle. The deer ruts in the fall and offers battle to other deer in competition for females. The stronger and cleverer deer passes on his inheritance. The rooster defends his status and his hens courageously. The battle for females selects the fittest. Later, we will discuss the laws of inheritance.

[There follows two paragraphs on methods of plant reproduction.]

The drive for maintaining the species is stronger than the instinct for self preservation. Plants sacrifice themselves for their seeds. Most insects die when they have reproduced. The female rabbit defends her young against hawks, often at the cost of her own life. A fox risks its life to secure food for its young. The life of the individual can be sacrificed to assure the continuation of the species. (The law of the species is stronger than that of the individual!)

Among all living creatures, we can see a further natural law: the production of numerous offspring. Nowhere on earth do we find a form of life that produces only one or two offspring (corresponding to the number of the parents). That would inevitably lead to extinction. The elephant has the longest period of procreation, from its 30th to 90th year. It brings about six offspring into the world. A scientist has calculated that even with this slow rate of reproduction, in the absence of the struggle for survival elephants would take over the entire world in a few hundred years. A single pair would produce 19 million descendants in 750 years. The struggle for survival leads most to perish. The blue titmouse has two broods of 10-13 a year, but their number is not increasing. The more threatened a creature is in the struggle for survival, the more offspring it must produce. The greater number of offspring is a necessary means of responding to the hard struggle for survival. Each habitat can disappear from one day to the next (arrival of a new predator, disappearance of a food source).

A large number of offspring are an important means in the struggle for survival of the species. The house mouse can resist the field mouse simply through its larger number of young. In such instances, one can speak of a battle of births.

The second law to which all life is subordinate is: “Each life form strives to ensure the survival of its species. The number of offspring must be greater than the number of the parents if the species is to survive (law of the larger number of offspring). Each species strives to conquer new territory. The species goes before the individual.

History provides us with enough examples to prove that mankind, too, is under this law. In the midst of their prosperity, the Romans lost the desire to have children. They sinned against the law of maintaining the species. Their state was undermined and overcome by foreign peoples in a short time. The ethnic traits of the Romans thus vanished. Our nation, too, once hung in the balance. National Socialism restored to the German people the will to have children, and preserved our people from certain decline, which would have been inevitable under the law of species and the law of the greater number of offspring.

Here, too, we can recall the Führer’s words:
Marriage, too, cannot be an end in itself, but rather it must have the larger goal of increasing and maintaining the species and the race. That only is its meaning and its task. (Mein Kampf, p. 275) 
The goal of female education must be to prepare them for motherhood. (Mein Kampf, p. 460)

As we have already noted, people do not live as individuals like animals and plants, but as peoples, which largely have come together as ethnic states. We know something similar only with insects. Bees and ants are not only the sum of individuals; each individual shares a united drive in service of the entire group. They do not have an individual will any longer, but rather their actions have only the goal of serving the welfare of the whole, the welfare of the community. The state-building drive in insects has created a higher order from the drives of the individuals. Their species has become a higher order, one will in many parts. The individual member of a beehive does a single task: One may be a worker that carries nectar, another cleans the hive, the third builds on to it, a fourth feeds the larva, a fifth watches the hive’s entrance. Each individual activity serves the whole. It is the same with ants. Certain ant species even have a warrior caste that fights in the front lines for the rest; the battle against the enemies of the state here, too, involves the whole group.

The instinctual state of the ants corresponds to the leadership state among mankind; however, the principles of a perfect insect state give people cause to think. They have preserved bees and ants in the struggle for survival and thereby proved their validity. We earlier noted the following truths about ants:
1. The work of the individual has only one purpose: to serve the whole group.
2. Major accomplishments are possible only by the division of labor. 
3. Each bee risks its life without hesitation for the whole. 
4. Individuals who are not useful or are harmful to the whole are eliminated. 
5. The species is maintained by producing a large number of offspring.
It is not difficult for us to see the application of these principles to mankind: We also can accomplish great things only by a division of labor. Our whole economy demonstrates this principle. The ethnic state must demand of each individual citizen that he does everything for the good of the whole, each in his place and with his abilities (Principle 1).
He who loves his people proves it only by the sacrifices he is prepared to make for it. (Mein Kampf, p. 474).
If a person acts against the general interest, he is an enemy of the people and will be punished by the law (Principle 4). A look at our history proves that we as a people must defend our territory to preserve our existence.
The world does not exist for cowardly nations. (Mein Kampf, p. 105)
Military service is the highest form of education for the Fatherland (Principle 3).
The task of the army in the ethnic state is not to train the individual in marching, but to serve as the highest school for education in service of the Fatherland. (Mein Kampf, p. 459).
The fifth principle has already been discussed.

Each citizen of the nation must be ready to do all for the good of the whole, for the will of the Führer, even at the cost sacrificing his own life (the national law). The good of the nation goes before the good of the individual.

These natural laws are incontrovertible; living creatures demonstrate them by their very survival. They are unforgiving. Those who resist them will be wiped out. Biology not only tells us about animals and plants, but also shows us the laws we must follow in our lives, and steels our wills to live and fight according to these laws. The meaning of all life is struggle. Woe to him who sins against this law:
The person who attempts to fight the iron logic of nature thereby fights the principles he must thank for his life as a human being. To fight against nature is to bring about one’s own destruction. (Mein Kampf, p. 314).

Friday, March 10, 2017

"National-Socialist Racial Standpoint": Excerpt from 'Why the Aryan Law?' by Dr. E.H. Schulz and Dr. R. Frercks

In 1934, the National-Socialist government adopted a law removing Jews from the various occupations in German society, an application of a much more comprehensive legislation ensuring the racial integrity of the German people. The composition, below, is an extract of a much larger pamphlet defending this law, and it places the philosophical standpoint of the National-Socialist party and state in context to the law.

'German Family,' by Adolf Wissel

Source: Dr. E.H. Schulz and Dr. R. Frercks, Warum Arierparagraph? Ein Beitrag zur Judenfrage (Berlin: Verlag Neues Volk, 1934). Translation by R. Bytwerk.

For a long time, people at home and abroad claimed that National-Socialism meant war at any price. Only gradually is it becoming clear that a stable Germany, one that needs peace for decades to build itself up economically and agriculturally, is a surer guarantee of peace than a nation torn apart by party conflicts, which is a constant source of political unrest. The new Germany’s racial thinking is the hardest element for many to understand, encountering rejection and misunderstanding. Some of it is the result of the honest misunderstanding of the old liberal outlook, but some of it is also the result of a conscious attempt to encircle Germany. Before the war the danger was seen as the "militaristic Empire." Today, the racial outlook is seen as a threat to all human culture and civilization, making necessary a unified front of all those nations whose dignity is threatened by German barbarism. That is the approach today of those foreign circles interested in isolating Germany.

In the long run, no idea is better suited to guarantee peace between nations than National-Socialist racial thinking, which calls for the furtherance and maintenance of one’s own race and one’s own people, and supports similar efforts on the part of other nations. Such mutual respect which requires respect both for one’s own nation and that of others rejects the forcible conquest of other nations, and history shows that it is useless as well. Imperialist strivings are rejected from the start, since they would mean an overlapping of one’s own activities with those of others.

There can be no doubt that, as in so many other areas, human generations develop in unified ways. But humanity finds its deepest meaning when the outward elements are determined by the character and spiritual characteristics that find their visible expression in race and nationality. No thought or feeling, if it is genuine and deep, can escape its racial boundaries.
" . . . no idea is better suited to guarantee peace between nations than National-Socialist racial thinking, which calls for the furtherance and maintenance of one’s own race and one’s own people, and supports similar efforts on the part of other nations. . . ."
One of the fundamental principles of the National-Socialist worldview is that there are not universal human principles, such as the Pan-European idea in politics or the idea of a human soup in racial terms. Judgments are only possible from life, which is racially determined. Being interested in and caring for one’s kind is not to disparage foreign peoples and races. The Jews are responsible for charges that Germany puts all other peoples and races on earth on a lower level. Just as one cannot say that one animal or plant is better than another, one cannot make an objective value judgment between Europeans and Mongols. Their thinking and feeling about essential matters are different, which means they will have different cultures. We have our values, other peoples have theirs. Every variety of custom and culture is colored by the race or group from which produces it, as are judgments of such matters.

Lasting peace is possible based on the consciousness of the ethnic or racial distinctiveness of each nation, and a recognition of their mutual right to existence rather than on the maintenance of some sort of power position. The new Germany that views its own race and ethnicity positively must therefore distinguish within its territory between one race and another, between one people and another. Mixing of blood harms both sides. Race is an issue for every people if they are to live according to their nature. The German people is not so arrogant as to believe that it is the chosen people. The familiar quotation from Geibel, "The world should enjoy German ways," should be understood in the context of the dreams of world betterment of those past days.

The National-Socialist racial viewpoint has clear consequences for the relationship between Germans and Jews. People have often said that National-Socialism’s approach to the racial question is purely negative and destructive, and that its essential characteristic is radical anti-Semitism. One must grant that we made the Jewish question clearer than anyone else, and taught an entire generation that had been taught to see all people the same to recognize the importance of the Jewish question not only for our people, but for the entire world. Our treatment of the Jewish problem in the years before we took power must be seen as the political education of the German people, which had lost its racial instincts to a dangerous degree.
". . . the National-Socialist worldview [rejects the idea of] universal human principles . . ."
The question took on its own nature in Germany. Many citizens had their eyes opened, and the simultaneous appeal to all the heroic and manly virtues of the German man resulted in a racial selection of political fighters who today stand at the head of the new state. Formerly, the Jewish question, as seen by the state, was a matter of complete equality and the unhindered immigration of Jews from the East. This is the best proof of how racial feeling and consciousness had been lost. Our tone was not purely negative or the simple rejection of others, rather the emphasis was on the positive values of our own people. This does require noting that Jewry through its Marxist class struggle leadership role and its international financial measures aimed at Germany supported every kind of anti-national action in the cultural and political fields. Jewry should not complain if its anti-German activities, which have no counterpart in any other country, call forth from the people the defensive reaction of anti-Semitism.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

"The Jews and the German People": An Excerpt from K. Bareth and A. Vogel's 'Hereditary and Racial Science for Elementary and Secondary Schools'

This is an extract of a larger text published for German elementary and secondary schools, emphasizing the necessity for the German to place himself in relation to the Jew. This calls for understanding the biological traits of individual Jews. The Jewish people is a folk, not a race; it is composed of Near Eastern, Negroid and Oriental racial elements. The inclination of Jews for certain professions also underwrites their nature.

The qualities of the Jew, depicted in a textbook for German children.

Source: Karl Bareth and Alfred Vogel, Erblehre und Rassenkunde für die Grund- und Hauptschule, 2nd edition (Bühl-Baden: Verlag Konkordia, 1937). Translation by R. Bytwerk.

Each German must understand the Jewish question. With sure vision, the writer Anacker predicted the bitter struggle against the "Red flood," and called for "the last reserves" in the decisive battle. In our own country, Red power ended as a result of the German revolution of 1933. Beyond our borders, however, the red plague still rages, attempting to corrupt other peoples and plunge them into misery and misfortune.

In our own land, we want to hold eternal watch. That is particularly true for you, German youth! You, too, must fight the battle and must therefore know the destroyer of all ethnic life: the Jew!

Development of Jewry. The Jews are not a race, as is often thought. The Jewish people is a racial mixture from parts of the Near Eastern and Asian races. The genetic, physical, and spiritual characteristics of the Jew are so foreign and different to us that any association with a Jew must be rejected by any German with sound instincts, even by the smallest, simplest child. This is particularly clear in areas where Germans do not live, but instead visit farmers for commercial reasons. The simple person in the countryside knows the Jew only from livestock trading or peddling. The trading instinct is in the Jew’s blood. The first Jews came to the Germanic regions during the time of the Romans. At first, they were only guests. But they were masters at understanding how to exploit the nature of their host people. As soon as the Jew was recognized as a bloodsucker and parasite among the people, he was expelled from the people’s community. During the Middle Ages, they were kept in strictly separate Jewish districts (ghettos), and had to wear distinctive clothing (pointed Jewish cap). Even during the age of Frederick the Great, one saw the Jew as a member of a foreign race, and Goethe, too, was outraged that the ban on marriage between Jews and Christians was to be lifted. The ghetto walls fell for the Jews during the French Revolution, with its notion of "equality." Following that example, the liberal statesman Hardenberg instituted the "emancipation" of the Jews, granting them independence and equality within the German host people. Suddenly, the Jew was a citizen. The Jew rapidly forced his way into every area of life of the German people. After Bismarck’s fall in 1890, the misfortune could no longer be halted.

Influence of Jewry in the economy. The House of Rothschild is a classic example. The Jew Meyer Amschel Rothschild was the founder of this “ruling house.” He began as a small merchant, them moved to money trading, and finally became court advisor to the Elector of Hesse. During the French Revolution, he earned millions by supplying the army. His five sons settled in Frankfurt, London, Paris, Vienna, and Naples, becoming Europe’s most powerful bankers.

Even kings and emperors fall victim to the Jew’s weapon of money. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the capitalist Jew stood higher than the political statesman, and soon the Jew Walter Rathenau could substitute the slogan "The economy is fate" for the holy concept of “blood and soil.” Jewry gained absolute control of Germany’s economy and commerce after the November Revolution of 1918. As Germany’s poverty grew, thousands of Jews immigrated from Galicia and Poland to our land in order to exploit the German people’s misery. In 1925, there were 76,000 Jewish immigrants. Filthy and poor, carrying all their possessions in a sack, they moved to Breslau, Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, etc. The plague also broke out in Baden, along the border. Within a few years, the Jews had gathered wealth and possessions. The following statistics show the economic power Jewry had in Germany.

In 1930, 57% of the 603 German metalworking firms were Jewish, 41% of the 514 dealers in scrap metal, 39% of the 12,858 textile firms, and 61% of the 133 wholesalers of women’s clothing. Of the 147 members of the Berlin stock exchange, 116 were Jewish! Four of the six members of the board of directors of the Reich Bank were Jews!

The Jews Katz, Kutisker, Barmat, Sklarek, and Rotter cheated the German people of many, many millions in economic life. Despite their guilt, they managed to avoid long prison sentences.

Influence of the Jews in German professional life. In Prussia in 1925, Jews were: 
  • 59% of commerce and transportation (17% of the general population works in this area); 
  • 26% of industry and crafts; 
  • 2% of agriculture (30% of the general population works in this area); 
  • 6% of civil servants and the professions (5% of the general population works in these areas); 
  • 4% of the health care system (2% of the general population works in this area). 

In Berlin in 1933, Jews were: 
  • 42% of all doctors, 
  • 52% of all insurance doctors, 
  • 45% of all hospital directors, 
  • 35% of all dentists, 
  • 28% of all pharmacists, 
  • 48% of all attorneys! 
  • 56% of all notaries! 
  • 80% of all theatre directors!
Jews take over German culture. To break the German powers of resistance, the Jews worked to poison our cultural life. Their filthy theatrical productions and dirty movies corrupted many Germans, particularly the young. Lovely old German fables were replaced by dirty books, Jewish jazz music drove out German folk songs. The German soul was increasingly poisoned, and the German people made ready for conquest.

Jews and politics. Politics was decisive; therefore, the Jew put particular energy into increasing his influence in politics. The Jew played a particularly destructive role in the November Revolution. One, a Polish Jew, made himself President of Bavaria. He declared that Germany bore the guilt for the World War. Levien, also a Jew, was a leader of the Munich Soviet Republic. He participated in the slaughter of hostages. Krautsky, a Czech Jew, succeeded in becoming a Reich undersecretary of state. He wrote a book that made Germany particularly guilty for the war, ignoring or twisting important documents. Lies by Eisner and Krautsky did great damage to our fatherland.

The Jews assumed important state positions, until our Führer took over the leadership of the state. Hilferding, a Jew from Austria, was Reich Minister of Finance for a long time. The Police President of berlin, Isidor Weiß, was a Jew. Even the Foreign Ministry was lead by a Jew for a long time. The Jews had leading roles in the Marxist parties. The Jews Marx, Lasalle, Rosa Luxemburg, Liebknecht, Hilferding, Hugo Haase, and others were leading Marxists. In 1924, 22% of SPD representatives were Jewish, 15% of the USPD. These people misled German workers for decades. Our Führer tells us in his book Mein Kampf how the Jews thought up Marxism. When Adolf Hitler was working in construction in Vienna, fighting for his future, misled workers tried to convince him of the Jewish doctrines of Marxism. They said more or less the following: "Look, we are workers, without rights and oppressed. We are a class, a working class, and have but one enemy, the bourgeoisie, the rich. That is whom we fight against. Workers all over the world are fighting him." Adolf Hitler saw the falseness of this doctrine, but also saw that it had been thought up by Jews. He also knew that it would be impossible to wipe out this doctrine, which had split the German people into enemy camps, without taking power away from the Jew. Therefore, Adolf Hitler set himself the task of taking his great influence away from the Jew, and never losing sight of that goal. Thus, immediately after the German revolution, the Jew was removed from all influential positions through the Aryan Paragraph of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service of 7 April 1933. The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (Reich Party Rally at Nuremberg, 1935) prohibited marriage between Germans and Jews. Racial defilement is severely punished. The Jews are excluded from Reich citizenship. After 100 years, this law once again makes clear the line between Germans and Jews, to the blessing of our people.

Monday, March 6, 2017

Materials on Race for the Young: An Excerpt from 'The German National Catechism,' by Werner May

This is an excerpt of an excellent tract on educational materials for German youth that is titled 'The German National Catechism.' This is the section of the tract on race and racial elements; it attempts to simplify aspects of racial biology for young Germans.

'The Family,' artist and date unknown

Source: Werner May, Deutscher National-Katechismus, 2nd edition (Breslau: Verlag von Heinrich Handel, 1934), pp. 22-26. Translation by R. Bytwerk.

3. Of Race and People (Volk)

What is a race?

A group of living creatures is a race when its individual members share the same appearance and genetic inheritance.

What do I understand under "appearance and genetic inheritance"?

Physical characteristics that are passed along: the color of the skin, the shape of the skull, and particularly facial features (shape of the nose, mouth, lips), etc.

What are the major races?

White [Caucasoid], black [Negroid], and yellow [Mongoloid].

To which race do Europe’s peoples belong?

The peoples of Europe do not belong to a particular race, but are rather a racial mixture. Our German people is comprised primarily of six races.

[Note carefully what this author is saying: He is not saying that the German people does not belong to the White race, only that it is composed of six distinct subraces; see below.]

And what are they?

The Nordic race
The Pfalzish (Fälische) race
The Western (Westliche) race
The East Baltic (Ostbaltische) race
The Ostic (ostische) race
The Dinarish (dinarische) race

[Compare this to that of other German anthropologists, biologists, and philosophers who also noted the multiplicity of races comprising the German people, such as Maennel, in his "primer." Also, be cautious against those who would argue, on the basis of this claim, that a multiracial society was advocated by the NSDAP or that it was racially ambivalent.]

How can one tell that peoples are racially related?

First, from their languages, in which many words are the same or similar.

For example:

Greek - Latin - German - French - English
patér   - pater   - Vater     - père     - father
méter  - Mäter  - Mutter   - mère    - mother
egó     - ego     - ich         - je         - I

A racial relationship is also evident in the same or similar cultural products, sagas, legends and customs.

What were and are the particular characteristics of the Nordic race?

Courage, bravery, creative ability and desire, loyalty.

The German people is, along with the English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, the most racially pure of the European peoples. With regards to the purity of language, the Scandinavian peoples are in first place.

Its Gothic script is particularly lovely, and it should be maintained.

Which race must the National-Socialist fight against?

The Jewish race.


The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys works of culture. He is not a creative spirit, rather a destructive spirit.

How is that evident?

The work of Aryan peoples shows a true creative spirit. The Jew is mostly a merchant, as he was for millennia in the past. There are no Jewish construction workers in Germany, no smiths, no Jewish miners or seamen. Nearly all major inventions were made by Aryans.

How has the Jew subjugated the peoples?

With money. He lent them money and made them pay interest. Thousands and thousands of Germans have been made wretched by the Jews and been reduced to poverty. Farmers whose land had been in the family for more than 100 years were driven from their land because they could not pay the interest.

What happened to those farmers?

They had to move to the cities. Torn from the land to which they belonged, robbed of their labor that gave their lives purpose and meaning, they fell victim to poverty and misery. Worn down, their souls crushed, they accepted Jewish doctrines that denied the Fatherland and opposed all that was nationalistic. Their strength and ability faded. The Jew had reached his goal.

What other guilt does the Jew bear?

While the German people was fighting a life and death battle during the World War, the Jew incited people at home and seduced them into treason. The November Revolution of 1918 that brought about Germany’s collapse was the work of the Jew.

In countless newspapers in Germany and abroad, he brought everything German into the mud, slandering us and inciting our enemies even more than they already were. His lackeys in leading positions in the Reich persecuted the National-Socialist movement, bringing the fighters for a new Germany before judges and throwing them into prison.

He corrupted Germans through bad books, and mocked true literature and German music, replacing it with ungermanic music. Everywhere, his influence was destructive.

What is racial defilement?

Forgetting our spirit and our blood. A careless disregard of our nature and a contempt for our blood. No German man may take a Jewish woman as his wife, and no German girl may marry a Jew. Those who do that exclude themselves from the community of the German people.

What must the National-Socialist movement do?

Adolf Hitler said: “Care must be taken, at least in our nation, that the deadliest enemy (the Jew) is recognized, and that the battle against him is seen as the shining symbol of a brighter day that will also show other peoples the path to the salvation of fighting Aryan humanity.”

Which European people disregards the racial question?

France. It has accepted large numbers of blacks into its army. It has given them the same political rights as the whites. Thus it can happen that black officers command whites. Blacks and Moroccans fought against Germany in the World War. After the war, blacks raped German women and girls in the Rhineland.

Germans — never forget that!

What does your people mean to you?

You are born into your people, my child, of a German mother. Your father is a German. And you belong to the German people just as every part of your body belongs to you. You are a link in a great chain, a part of the whole. Alone, you are nothing, but when you live for your people you are everything. Your people’s destiny is your destiny. Its struggles and sorrows, its joys and its miseries, are yours. All Germans are your brothers. You may not think, want or do anything that harms your people! The history of your people is great and glorious, and you can be proud of it. The days of betrayal and the years of shame that Germany had to endure between 1918 and 1933 are a warning to you. You must work and create for the resurrection of your Fatherland.

The greatness of your people calls you to loyalty! Never forget that Frederick the Great and Bismarck were your brothers, as are those heroes of the World War who sleep in foreign soil or in the depths of the sea! The war memorials in the streets of the cities and the market places of the villages call to you. Never forget that we cheerfully shed our blood for you, for Germany’s holy soil, for the good and the life of this great people!

Tuesday, February 28, 2017

National-Socialist Ideals and Values: 'Faith and Action: A Confession of the Young Nation,' by Helmut Stellrecht

The following reproduction is a monograph discussing National-Socialist virtues.

Source: Helmut Stellrecht, Glauben und Handeln. Ein Bekenntnis der jungen Nation (Berlin: Zentralverlag der NSDAP., Franz Eher Nachf., 1943).

Adolf Hitler speaking at an S.A. gathering in Dortmund, 1933


You carry in your blood the holy inheritance of your fathers and forefathers. You do not know those who have vanished in endless ranks into the darkness of the past. But they all live in you and walk in your blood upon the earth that consumed them in battle and toil and in which their bodies have long decayed. §Your blood is therefore something holy. In it your parents gave you not only a body, but your nature. §To deny your blood is to deny yourself. No one can change it. But each decides to grow the good that one has inherited and suppress the bad. Each is also given will and courage. §You do not have only the right, but also the duty to pass your blood on to your children, for you are a member of the chain of generations that reaches from the past into eternity, and this link of the chain that you represent must do its part so that the chain is never broken. §But if your blood has traits that will make your children unhappy and burdens to the state, then you have the heroic duty to be the last. §The blood is the carrier of life. You carry in it the secret of creation itself. Your blood is holy, for in it God’s will lives.


Race means to be able to think in a certain way. He who has courage, loyalty and honor, the mark of the German, has the race that should rule in Germany, even if he does not have the physical characteristics of the "Nordic" race. The unity of the noble and a noble body is the goal to which we strive. But we despise those whose noble body carries an ignoble soul. §A variety of related European races have merged in Germany. One trunk grew from these roots. Each race gave its best strength. Each contributed to the German soul We Germans have a fighting spirit, a look to the horizon, the "desire to do a thing for its own sake" of the Nordic race. Another racial soul gave us our cozy old cities and our depth. Yet another racial soul gave us mastery of the magical realm of music. Yet another gave us our ability to organize, and our silent obedience. §We can not hold it against anyone if he carries a variety of racial lines, for the German soul does as well, and created out of it the immeasurable riches which it possesses above all other nations. The greatness of our Reich grew out of this soul. §But the Nordic race must dominate in Germany and shape the soul of each German. It must win out in the breast of each individual. Today our ideal is not the artist or the citizen, but the hero. §Our highest treasure is the soul that we have been given. He who mixes his blood with that of foreign inferior races ruins the blood and soul that have been given to him to pass on in purity to his children. He makes his children impure and miserable, and commits the greatest crime that he as a National Socialist can commit. §But he who follows the laws of race fulfills the great commandment that only like should be brought together with like, keeping apart those things like fire and water which do not mix.

A People (Volk)

A people grows from god’s will. Woe to him who wishes to destroy the peoples and make people alike. God created the trees, the bushes, the weeds and the grass not so that they could merge into one species, but that each should exist in its own way. §Just as a tree, a people grows as a living whole from similar roots, but becoming one, the strongest of its kind. §All of the same blood belong to it. A people knows no state boundaries. It is bound by the ties of blood that bind all the sons of a single mother. The German people is a nation of a hundred million. Each German belongs to it, no matter where he may live. §A people cannot be destroyed as long as its roots draw on the strength of the earth. Summer and winter may come and go. But it always blooms anew in indestructible life and perfects itself in the strength that rises from its roots towards god’s will. §What does it mean when an individual dies? It is as if the wind blows leaves from a tree. New ones grow eternally every spring. §The peoples are the greatest and most noble creation of god on this earth. There is no institution in the world, no party and no church, that has the right to make them the same or to rob them of even the tiniest bit of their individuality.


A people gives itself its form through the state. There is only one natural form for each people, only one state. §In the natural process of growth, each people finds its form and its state, and finds them again when it has lost them, if only it wants to. §National Socialism has broken foreign compulsion and eliminated the unnatural. Germany once again grows into its own state and is once more itself. §The best rules, the Führer, and he carries the responsibility because he is best able to bear it. The parliament has ceased to exist. This form of Western democracy has been abolished. The German states established by the grace of counts or by Napoleon disappear. The Reich becomes one. The new state rises:

"The day is coming when a single tent will cover all the German land."


Socialism means: "The common good before the individual good."
Socialism means: "Think not of yourself, but of the whole, of the people and the state."
Socialism means: "Not the same for everyone, but to each his own."

These sentences make clear what we call "German socialism." No one is a socialist who does not live according to them. §A new order grows from these sentences. The sentence "To each his own” has killed the “mass," the slogan of Marxism, and replaced it with the "community." Every community grows around a leader. He is the center of its order, which forms around him. A number of these leaders form a larger community, and stand around their leader as a living order. It all grows from below—the number growing ever smaller—like a pyramid, and finds its epitome in the Führer of the Reich. All are bound by the community. Each community is a living order. The whole, the great living order, is the people’s community. It binds inextricably person to person, leader to leader. It does not give the same to everyone, but to each his own. It creates the socialist people in a socialist state. §Each has his task in the community, given to him according to his gifts. Never do all have the same task, but rather each his own. His task gives him a place in the community, If he fulfills it completely, he wins the esteem of the others. He is happy, even if his task is not large in the overall scheme of things. §Such communities grow in the field, in assault troops, in artillery battalions, in submarines, in S.A. units. Strong, bound forever together, wordlessly understanding each other, together until the end, sworn to a common goal. Strength grows from such communities, and from them grows the state. §We want community in Germany so that we can stand unshaken in the face of whatever may come. The mass is conquered by the community. It gives to each his own, to each his goal and his task, and everyone together one goal: the people’s community in the new state.


"Oh holy heart of the peoples, O Fatherland!" You were created from the endless forests and wide moors that the glaciers of the ice age left us. It was poor land only made fruitful through sweat and toil, in joy and sorrow, in endless work. §One passed you on to the next and laid down in your earth from which new life grew. In you rest the endless ranks of past generations, the seed for new sowing in the wide land. The blood of the noble and brave who defended you fell on you. You were fertilized by the best that you bore. §From you, castles and cathedrals rose to the heavens, as if the earth itself wished to rise up to the god it was seeking. From our earth, from the seed of our dead. §The land is broad. Under the care of industrious hands it became a garden. They protected it lovingly, like the mountains and valleys protect their villages. Proud cities by the rivers, displaying the splendor of the old Reich. The market fountain has flowed for hundreds of years here. The gates still stand through which once the Kaiser, the knights and the nobility passed. §The silver stream of fate winds through. On the other bank is land that was lost. The heart almost stops. How one wishes to stroke the distant forests as one would an old and beloved face. But the heart beats once more on the plains and the coasts that German colonists won. The castle of the knights stands in the east, an eternal testimony of strength and virtue. There are the fields from which Frederick’s eagle rose toward the sun, and there, far from the borders, is the wall of German dead, an eternal memorial of the nation that withstood the world as long as it believed in itself. §Everything is founded in and rests in you, Fatherland. Our strength and our greatness, but also our need and our misery. You are the ground that bore us and will bear those distant generations that will work and bleed for you. §No one can live without you, but each will gladly give his life back to you who gave it to him.


Courage is the most beautiful and noble trait a man can have. He who has no courage is not a man. §The "storming courage" of an attack is wonderful. The feeling of having risked all in service of a high ideal frees one and lets him charge forward with joy. Courage bears a man as if he had wings, and fills his heart. §The attack becomes the high point of life. When everything depends on one card, when one can lose everything, when one can win everything, life is at its best. He who has never charged and attacked, filled with courage, has never fully lived. §Alongside "stormy courage" is the "indomitable courage" of those facing hard fate. "Fate is great and powerful, but greater still is the person who bears it unshaken." §Life is often harder than death. A coward holds on to it. No one faces a challenge greater than the strength he has been given to face it. Courage overcomes all. When one has done all in his power, good luck comes to show him a new way and help him along. But it is not really good luck. "Resist all powers, never give in, be strong, calls the army of the gods." §Courage is needed not only by the man, by the soldier, a woman too needs courage. For the man battle, the attack is the greatest challenge. For the woman it comes when she gives a new person life. Men who no longer want to wage war cannot face the mothers who give new life at the risk of their own. §Courage is the noblest trait of a man or woman. It determines the battle and gives victory.


Life demands hardness. One must strive with burning heart toward the ideal of hardness. To be hard for the sake of life, to become a fighter, to win the victory. §Our environment is a given. Burning heat in summer, biting cold in winter, long marches in the wet and cold. Working long at the factory, or behind a machine gun. Bearing hunger and thirst, sleeping on the bare earth, not surrendering in battle, never, never, no matter how hopeless everything sees, hurling an empty pistol in the face of the enemy, reaching for his neck without regard for oneself, even if it leads to death. To be a fighter, a fighter with faith in his cause, even if everyone says it is a false cause. That brings victory, the victory that belongs to him who is the harder. §You should never give up in battle or work. Even if you fail a thousand times, you must make the thousand and first attempt. In the end it will succeed and you will be the victor, even if almost bled dry, almost faint, but filled with the triumphant knowledge of having overcome. You are victor in your struggle and victor over yourself. §Each must prepare for his battle. Each must train as if he will one day fight the decisive battle for Germany. Each must be able to march, suffer hunger and thirst, sleep on bare ground, bear all privations, be a fighter, a soldier from the moment he can understand what is at stake. §We need men hard and tough as steel, harder than anything else in the world. Only they will master the great future of Germany. Do you want to be one of them, or stand aside as a weakling? §Germany will be the land of the brave and the strong. Either you belong to them, or you will no longer be a German.


Will is the force inside you that commands. You may hesitate from weariness, anxiety, weakness. Will lifts you over every barrier and orders you to do what your feelings and understanding tell you to do. §A man without will is like a machine without power. It is useless. But "where there is a will, there is a way," and where a will orders, it is obeyed, whether a person follows his own will or men follow the will of a leader. §Where there is faith that comes from strength, it is will that gives it the push. §Exercise your will so that it is as taut and ready as a drawn bowstring, ready to let loose in the moment it should, neither a second too late nor a second too early. Exercise your will in little things until it is strong enough to bring from you that which Germany expects.

Self Control

One expects that a person who drives a car is in control, and that he causes no accidents. One expects that a person who lives with other people will control himself, so that he does not endanger himself or others. §The forces within us can raise or lower us. It depends on the use we make of them, on whether we control them and therefore ourselves. §Hunger and thirst exist to be satisfied. But woe to him who eats for the sake of eating or drinks for the sake of drinking. He is lower than an animal that knows when it has had enough. But he to whom understanding has been given does not know it. We hate the gluttons and drunkards with bulging bodies and swollen eyes, people with no character or self control. We eat and drink to live, but we never live in order to eat and drink. §The body must be kept under iron discipline so that we are always in charge of it and it is always dependable. We also may never allow the sexual drive to control us. For adults it is not there to be satisfied, but rather a force that should be used to produce future generations healthy in both body and soul. A young person is given strength not to use in bed, but rather in the sun and the wind, on the sports field and countryside, until we have a body in front of us full of strength and speed, a body in which courage and faith are joined in a free soul, a body that is master of its passions, master of itself, the German person of the future. Out of it will grow the strength of a renewed people, the bearer of a future generation of nobility and freedom. §If you control yourself, you control life. §If you control yourself, you must be able to bear pain without uttering a sound. Men do not complain or cry, and boys who want to become men behave in the same way. §You should not give in to every little problem. Be open, be determined, never play the cripple, but control yourself. Be the master of your pain and problems. Force yourself to be cheerfully faithful. Then you will find strength you did not know you had. §You must practice self control. How often does duty call, but something distracts you? Command yourself so that you can master yourself. §Do something every day that you do not like to do, and avoid doing something every day that you would gladly have done. §Do everything you are ordered to do immediately, without thinking about it. You must in order to become a real man. §That is the secret of every great personality. It has gained all the strength it directs outwardly from overcoming itself. §But you should not be a meek person who gives up everything in order to live in a cave to receive a promised blessing. God does not want that for a person. He should have pleasure in his work. He should use it, but never misuse it, and should be the master of himself.


Savages and half-savages have courage, but only advanced people have discipline. Discipline is the ability to fall in line. Discipline is carrying out an order without knowing the reason, without understanding. Discipline also means enduring injustice for the sake of a good cause. §Discipline is iron virtue and silent obedience. §Discipline comes from within yourself. You accept it because you follow a higher will. He who does not do this will be forced by steely necessity, which alone can overcome the lack of will and weakness of many, making of them useful members of the people and the state. §Discipline is a spiritual attitude. Law and command work through it for the good of all. Any weakening of discipline is the beginning of collapse. Each is called to ensure that he himself and the man next to him behaves in a disciplined way.


Duty is a hard word as long as one has not done it. Duty is a pleasant word as soon as one has done it. §Duty is the “you should” that you feel inside. Duty is that which family, people and the state demand of you. Doing one’s duty does not mean being controlled by the reins that rule a horse, but rather doing one’s duty means that one does it with joy, no matter how hard. §The fatherland grew from the duty done by our fathers and forefathers. From the duty we all do grows the present state and the future both of the individual and the whole. §Duty can also mean sacrifice, the sacrifice of one’s own life. Your people can demand of you what it has given you. But what does demand mean? The state, the fatherland dwell in your own breast. You demand it of yourself, and the path of highest duty is the way of greatest happiness, even if it leads to your death. § Justice comes from fulfilled duty. There is no other justice in the National Socialist state, just as there is no pay without labor. The greater the duty, the greater the justice. He who does the most for Germany has the greatest right to guide Germany and determine its fate. He is the Führer of the Reich, and others follow him according to the duty they have fulfilled. §A worker on the street can stand higher in the ranks than a government minister if he has better done his duty. §Fulfilling one’s duty to the utmost is required of each of us. Who will wait until the demand comes, until it is required? He who does his duty of his own free will, he is a free man and not a slave.


You live by honor, not by bread. Slaves believe that they only need food and drink to live. The free man knows that he needs honor first of all. §Your honor is your standing with your comrades and fellow citizens. It is just as much your standing with yourself. §To be honorable is to be courageous. To be honorable is to be selfless and loyal. To be honorable is to be in control of oneself. He who does great things for his fatherland is honorable. §Honor comes not from money and possessions. But he who creates new values or gives other work through his spirit or the work of his hands can thereby win honor. §It is also honorable to be the son of someone noble, someone who has done much for his people and his state. But the son is unworthy of his honor if he does not win it anew. §Inherited honor does not last forever, but always demands work and struggle. Honor is like a crown. He who ceases to live and act like a king loses it — and has lost it, even if he still wears it on his head. §Not everyone can take honor from another. The insult of a boy cannot harm one’s honor. But he who accepts an insult in a cowardly way loses honor before others. §We do not reply to an insult ourselves at first. That is why superior leaders and judges are there. But if someone hits you, hit back, and if someone strikes your face, strike him back. For we National Socialists in Germany today, there is only one honor, one concept of honor. There is no particular concept of honor for particular classes any longer. National Socialism has given us all a new common sense of honor. We know it. He who does not have it is not free, but a slave. The least important worker today can be free and honorable, the prosperous businessman a slave and a serf. §That is the new law, which gives honor only to the brave, the selfless, the loyal, the self controlled, those who do everything for Germany that they can. §The way to honor is open for every German.


Loyalty is a holy word. Speak it rarely. It must be as taken-for-granted as the air we breathe. §What exists exists because of loyalty. If that which exists ceases to be loyal, it returns to nothingness. That tears the bonds that hold everything together. It shatters camaraderie; it shatters leadership; it shatters honor; it shatters confidence in the law; it shatters the army; it shatters the state; it shatters everything that exists. §Germany collapsed in 1918 because disloyalty replaced loyalty. An “excess of loyalty” raised it again from the abyss. Now it stands on the foundation of loyalty, which must be stronger than the destructive forces of the world. §What is loyalty, comrade? §Your loyalty is that you never, never turn from the ideals to which you have sworn allegiance. National Socialism has raised them high, so that they live in you and will go into the grave with you. That is your first and deepest loyalty. §And you are true to your fatherland, called Germany. As its earth brought forth your blood, you belong to it forever. §The third claim on your loyalty is to follow the Führer both in the brightest and the darkest days. It is better for you to follow him ever into darkness and misery than that your loyalty weakens even once. §Fourth, you owe loyalty to your comrade. You will always help him in need and danger. He should always know that he can come to you, that he can rely on you entirely, as if you were his physical brother. §Sigfried and Hagen were loyal. Siegfried, the bright hero, fought battles for his king. His life was joy and jubilation and victory. Love and loyalty accompanied him, as if bearing him on their hands. §Hagen slew Siegfried not as a cowardly murderer, but rather because Siegfried invited guilt upon himself. The honor of the king was at stake. Siegried had to die. But Hagen took the guilt upon himself. His loyalty to his king was more to him than his own outward honor. He took the curse of a murderer on himself and was greater than all and he was loyal [This story is part of the Niebelung saga]. §The German warrior loyally followed his nobleman and did not return home without him. The knights loyally followed their lords and emperors. Prussia’s greatest sons were served their king loyally, even when they were better than he. They served not his person, but the crown that he bore. The millions who died in the World War loyally followed their leaders. In loyalty, they lie with them as a ring of dead around Germany. In loyalty, we all follow the Führer and his flag. The hand of each will hold the flag until death, the flag that leads Germany to new life. §We show loyalty in daily life as well. Once again, a man’s word is dependable. Promises must be kept and will be kept. We do not need a handshake and an oath. Each can depend on our word, because we again have become loyal. §Germany is the land of loyalty. It dwells in its vast forests. It dwells in its knights and soldiers. It dwells again in us. Loyalty is our honor. Who wants to be dishonorable amidst the brave and the heroes?


There is no freedom in Germany to do whatever one wants, and there will be no such freedom, because otherwise Germany would not exist. §Freedom does not mean taking advantage of others, stealing from them, without being punished. Freedom does not mean living as one pleases. Nor does it mean preserving one’s life through cowardice. §Freedom is choosing to follow the path that duty requires. The others are slaves of themselves. He is the only free man: upright and proud, master of everything that might demean him, the best of the nation, the bearer of the state. He has elevated himself. He does his duty while others take a holiday. But his duty raises him above over his little ego and makes him free. §Somewhere in the middle of a hot summer, a village’s well dries up. Day and night, someone works hard to dig a new well. No one gave the order. But for him it is a happy duty to find water for women and children and comrades. The other does what he likes. The one is a free man amidst the hard work he has chosen to do. The other is the slave of his desires and passions. He is a rogue who may say in the pub that man is born free and can do whatever he wishes. §He who thinks of himself is a slave and bound; he who thinks of others is master and free.


Knowledge is that which can be measured by reason. Knowledge alone means nothing and is dead.§A wish that you can fulfill is called hope. Hope can easily come to nothing. §But faith can never fail, for faith is strength. Faith springs from your deepest feelings. It is that knowledge for which there is no explanation through reason. In faith the soul sees a part of the world order. It has a sense of that which should be, and sees through its eyes a part of the way that it should and can go. It knows that by going this way it fulfills god’s command and is working toward the great work that is immeasurable, incomprehensible. §Because faith sees this and can do it, it is more than human strength. It is a part of the enormous power that fills all life and all worlds. With faith, a person walks with the assurance of a sleepwalker. Who can resist him, for he follows the path of the highest will. He will succeed when he believes. No hand raised against him will divert him from his way. The bullet aimed at him will not hit as long has he has not finished his path, as long as he has not turned from it. §Thousands do not understand the believing person because their souls cannot see. But what do the faithful care about the opinion of others, what do those who can see care about the opinion of the blind, what do those who have become strong care about what the weak think. §The way of faith is the way of everything great. Before our eyes Adolf Hitler went the way fate led him. He was filled with it and believed what no reason of the reasonable could see. §The path of faith is before each of us. Even if it is not the path of fame and honor, it is still the path of duty and of greatest happiness. To find it means to gain a part of the eternal strength that moves the worlds. §Because faith is strength, it can do what seems impossible. It is the foundation for every deed. No one can do anything without faith. No one can even jump over a ditch if he does not believe he can do it. The highest and most important in a person is not knowledge and understanding, but rather his faith. Each is worth only as much as the faith he has. §This new Reich began with faith. The first party rally after the seizure of power was called "The Victory of Faith." It grew and became great through faith. It no longer grew from the faith of one man, but from the faith of us all, and was borne by the strength of all. More than human strength was present. §Woe to those who do not believe. They are not on the side of the strength of creation, but rather annihilation. They are the destroyers of the Reich. §Faith is however stronger than all other powers that can be found in this world.


We do not believe in a blind fate that leads people through their lives. We do not believe that god’s angels protect us in every step that we take and keep us from falling. But we do believe in a godly will that gives meaning to each each life that is born. Not an arbitrary generally meaning, but rather each life has its own particular purpose and meaning. §In the depths of our souls we sense whether we act according to this meaning. One can call this conscience or something else. It is there. We probably know the right path. We need only ask. A voice within us gives the answer, and speaks of the godly will that shows us the path we should go. §This path is our fate. Each has but one proper path. To follow it makes one happy to the highest degree, even if it is a path that brings only poverty and toil. §Any path that leads away from the meaning and purpose of life is death and sin. And even if the path seems ever so pleasant, you will sin every day of your life. §But you have the freedom to decide which path you want to follow. No blind fate rules you. You go your own way. §If you follow the law in your own heart, it is the way to your god. It is the way that comes from eternity and goes to eternity; in all the world there is never an end, only transformation. There is no death that is not also a beginning. Everything is part of the enormous plan of the worlds, of which you are a part if you seek your path. Everything is in development. The joy of creation lives in each. for it belongs to the builders at work. There is no heaven of pleasure and blessedness. But work and life alternate in eternal form, whether in the realm of the body or the sphere of the spirit. §Those who fell for an idea of god — and people and fatherland are such — continue to work for it. They become a part of the soul and the strength of their people., They continue to work and grow. They are in reality in us as our better thoughts. §Thus each creature plays its part, both in body and soul, in the great plan of the worlds. It is god, the eternal wisdom and the exalted sense of that which is beyond comprehension. When you submit and follow the path, it is also in you. You understand your part and do what you can, and whatever happens to you, you will be happy. You carry god in your own heart. You have overcome death, and if you do die, you live on as a part of the eternal strength that works continually and creates. §Your fate is the path that is shown to you. Your free will decides if you follow it and if you fulfill your task.

Birth and Death

Birth and death are the same; they are the two sides of one door. To enter one room always means leaving another. It depends on which room or which life we are in as to whether we say "entrance" or "exit," life or death. §For he who understands it, death holds no terrors. But he who did not go his proper way in life and sinned will see his guilt in death. But there is after death no place of torture, no hell. To see one’s guilt is the severest judgment and at the same time the greatest penalty. Judgment and punishment are within yourself. §Neglected work can only be made up by double effort. It will once more be your choice, either to work toward the world plan, or to be its enemy. That is the only death that there is, to become a force for destruction rather than for creation, and this death is not physical. It is your free choice to decide on which side you belong, on god’s or, to use an old term, "the devil’s." §What we call birth and death is only the door between two worlds. There is no birth and no death, only change, and we can go confidently through the door, for all the worlds were created by one hand.


The divine is powerful in its creatures. It dwells not in walls that people build. They may be witnesses of its will, but god is in the living. §Our ancestors went into the forests to find or to honor god. They greeted his light rising in the morning. That was more to them than a lamp in a man’s hand. They stood on mountain tops because his greatest work, the starry sky, was nearest there, not covered by a roof of stone. The great spring flowing from the mountain was more genuine and nearer to god than anything that could flow from a bottle held by a human hand. §Who dares to say that they were not close to the living god? §Other peoples may seek refuge in the stone walls of their cities or seek their god in caves. The true German senses god with holy fear in the life of creation. He prays to god by honoring his great works. §Who dares to say that God is nearer to us in that which human beings have built? §The faith of our fathers remains strong in us. Still today the German wanders through his countryside and is moved by the beauty of the land god has given him. The summits of his mountains give freedom. He feels eternity amidst the sea. Flowing water is to him the image of eternal change. §He protects the forest and the tree and the bush as if they were his comrades. He loves the animals that are tortured and tormented in other countries. What to him is part of his household is elsewhere only a possession. §He sees and honors in everything god’s creation, in the holy earth, in the wandering wind, in the flickering flames, in which there is always change. Ever again we stand on the summits of the peaks and wave the torch and feel the magnificent and the ineffable. §Who dares chide us because our eyes are open?

To Do a Thing for its Own Sake

You should never do anything for pay, but rather always because it is worth it for its own sake. Did ever a German soldier go to war for the sake of money? He did it for the Fatherland. He who asks us to be good and pious for money seduces us and draws us away from god. He is the devil’s advocate, even if he promises us heaven. §God is in the good that we do, but he is not in a heaven that we will enjoy for eternity. §It is German to do something for its own sake. Such was always the first and highest service to god in Germany, and thus it will remain as long as our nation lives and the world is there to warn us.


The world came into being when order first appeared. It will exist as long as there continues to be order. It will reach its culmination when it has reached the highest state of order. §The German has the gift of creating order, living order, whether in the form of factories, armies or states. An order in which each has his place and his task, in which everything flows together smoothly as if it were a single body. §The ability of Germans to create order is evident also in small things, in precision. It shows itself in the German home, which has no equal in its cleanliness and order. It shows itself in a machine, in an apparatus, that function so precisely that they are unparalleled in the world. It shows itself in the German soldier, whose weapon is spotless, whose boots are not missing a single nail. It shows itself in the SA man or Hitler Youth, whose backpack or locker is perfectly arranged and maintained. §It always the same German trait. It is not because of the presence of a spot of the absence of a nail, but rather it because of order itself, because one must be brought up to do his task as best as is possible and maintain German accomplishment at the highest level. § Results always depend on small things. A valuable machine is unusable because one part is not quite right. A machine gun on which everything depends fails because a grain of sand got in the barrel. §There must be order for there to be accomplishment, because every accomplishment begins with order. That is true for each individual part of life, and for the whole of it as well.


There should be nothing false in you! The Jew is dishonest. He is born that way and is ever full of deceit. You are born to be honest and to remain honest. Your face does not lie, your words are true, your actions are clear and can stand before all. §You will say no word about a comrade that you cannot say to his face. If you do so, you destroy the community and injure your honor and that of the other. You become dishonest. §You would not think of stealing ten pfennig from a comrade. How trivial that is when compared to stealing honor from someone who does not realize it, who is unable to defend himself. Compared to that, the thief one puts in prison has committed but a small offense. Possessions are of less value than honor. A thief has more honor than a slanderer. The first demand of honor is that one holds the honor of others as their highest possession. The next demand of honor is that one respects the property of others, which they have earned by hard word and industry. §It must again become such in Germany that one can leave one’s doors unlocked at night. It must again be such that every lost piece of property is returned and that one can trust unknown citizens with one’s money and possessions. §We want once again to have the honor of a farmer. It should be as it still is in the north, where one can leave one’s house and land without locking the door, because there is no dishonesty.§An end must be made of all dishonest behavior. It should be wrung out of us. There should be a new generation in Germany, honest in word and deed, because honor is to it more necessary than life itself. And woe to him who sins against it.


In the National Socialist state, there is no longer property with which the individual can do with whatever he wishes. There is no unlimited right of property, only a right that has been earned to administer it for the good of the whole. §Property is a loan. One may certainly use it, but only to advance the interests of the whole. §A farmer has a field. It belongs to him. And it should belong to him, for his ancestor tilled it, his fathers toiled on it. It belongs to him as long as he tills it so that food for other citizens grows on it. But the field must be taken from him if he leaves it fallow because he is too lazy or unambitious to till it. §A house! Why shouldn't a German have a house, a home for his children. The apartment in the city has taken a piece of the fatherland from the German. His own house and garden give him again a piece of Germany, and he has a right to that. § But it is not an unearned gift. Property must be earned by the work of the hand or the mind. The ambitious and hard-working settler in newly-won land will plow more land for himself and his children than others. Is that a failing on his part? He grows grain not only for himself, but also for others. What he grows is his property. §But he who through treachery and deceit gains possession of that which the mind and hands of others have created is a thief and a deceiver. He is like the swindler and the Jew who, without creating anything themselves, live greedily from that which they steal from others using corrupted justice. To eliminate them in Germany is our highest law. Once Germany’s forests were freed of wolves. In the same way, Germany must be freed of those who are worse and craftier than wolves.

Law and Justice

It is better that the individual suffers under the law than that there be no law. §Law defeats arbitrariness, for all are the same to it. Humanity is not permitted to exercise supreme justice. But the law gives the individual judge the measure of justice and punishment. Justice no longer rests on what the individual thinks, but rather the law must be anchored in the sentiments of the whole people. That is the case when a people has its own law, not that of another people. §The state is founded on justice. Injustice destroys it. A state without justice is the playground of freebooters and highwaymen. The farmer, the worker and the citizen need law to protect their labors. Law protects honor, life, marriage, possessions, all those things that we want and must have as the foundations of our state. The judge, fully independent, projects justice. The policeman is not the representative of some arbitrary order, but rather of that which a people finds good and right. §No sacrifice is too great in the cause of justice. "It is better that my son die than justice perish in the world," a great Prussian king once said. §We want justice once more to rule in Germany, that great, unwritten justice that came to us with our blood. It should be the law in Germany that all obey this justice. §Justice is not that which serves the individual, but rather that which serves the people. That is the supreme law of National Socialism, to which all must bow.

Building a Life

Life begins in youth. It reaches its high point in the man and the woman. It sinks like the sun into old age. §One must see life as a whole, as a natural process, which is perfected in each moment. There is nothing wrong in youth or age. Youth is youth and old age is old age, neither good nor bad, but rather only natural. §Youth is hope, maturity becoming. Youth means the possibility of a proper life and great deeds. If one sees in youth the signs of a coming bad and useless life, that is the worse reproach, for the greatest gift is being wasted. §Youth does not have the goal of remaining young, but of becoming man or woman. In a man is found courage and strength, seriousness and experience. Life follows its course to great deeds. For the man as well as the woman. §After the great battle is fought and the heavy work done, people have formed themselves inwardly and outwardly. Body and soul have shown what they are, where they belong, whether to the strength that builds or to that which destroys. The softening of age comes. The impatience of youth, the strength of the man, fade. A wide vision comes, the clear knowledge of the what is valuable and useless in this world. §After a person has fought a good fight, his last expression is the best, because it reveals the greatness of his life. It reveals all, need and toil, struggle and joy, and a reflection of the world to come. We sense that when we see the death mask of Frederick the Great. Is there a face that speaks more eloquently to us? §He who has fought such a fight earns honor in old age. Failing to respect the aged is a failure to respect life itself. §"I spent myself in the service of the Fatherland," Bismarck said. Who should not honor those who have grown old and worn in such a cause. Or do we want to honor those who say: "I have avoided service to the fatherland?" §Each stage of life is good: youth full of hope, maturity in the fullness of strength, the old filled with honor. Nothing deserves honor more than that which is greater than we are!